INTRODUCTION TO SRARP
The 1960's in America saw a growth in awareness of how activities impact the environment.
With this awareness, people began to call for the protection of both natural and cultural
resources. Protection of America's cultural heritage dates back to the beginning of
the 20th Century with the Antiquities Act of 1906, however the 1960's brought about
the most significant change with the passage of the National Historic Preservation
Act of 1966 and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. These two acts were
followed in the 1970's by Executive Order 11593 and the Archaeological Resources
Protection Act(ARPA) of 1979.
As a result of the new Federal and State laws and regulations, the South Carolina
Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology/ Savannah River Archaeological Research
Program (SCIAA/SRARP) began in 1973 a phased approach to archaeological compliance
involving reconnaissance surveys, general intensive watershed surveys, specific
intensive surveys, data recovery and coordination with major land users on
and around the Savannah River Site.
The data derived from these archaeological activities are used to define archaeologically
sensitive areas. The sensitivity zones and the knowledge of archaeological sites
are for the benefit of land use planners in order to facilitate the management of
cultural resources on the SRS. SRARP provides continued cultural resource management
guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to assure the fulfillment of compliance
commitments. Further, SRARP conducts research-based prehistoric and historic archaeological
compliance for the benefit of the public, curates the SRS archaeological collections
for research and inform the public on the research conducted on their behalf.
SRARP serves as a primary facility for the investigation of archaeological research
problems associated with cultural development within the Savannah River Valley.
The results of which are used to assist DOE in the management of more than 1300
known archaeological sites on the SRS. Finally, the logical outcome of research-
based compliance is the dissemination of the new knowledge to the public and the
The three interrelated goals of the SRARP/SCIAA are cultural resource management,
research and public education. Proper management of cultural resources
is dependent upon on-going research within specified problem domains
(Sassaman ET al. 1990 and Brooks and Crass 1991: Chapter 6) in order to
accurately assess archaeological site significance (e.g., 36CFR60.6(d)
and 36CFR800.10). The integration of management and research goals forms
the backbone of public awareness/educational goals. The responsibilities
of the SRARP are directly related to the cultural resource management
goals and guide SRARP/SCIAA, USC. However, they are also tied directly
to availability of sufficient funding. The are:
- Provide management guidance to the DOE for the protection
and preservation of the archaeological resources of the SRS
through the Archaeological Resource Management Plan [and
the PMOA (SRARP 1989)].
- Prepare annual reviews of cultural resource management on the
SRS for the SCSHPO using standards of reporting set out in the
- Cooperate with the DOE, Westinghouse Savannah River Company,
Savannah River Forest Station and other contractors in site use
planning and coordination efforts.
- Conduct additional testing of archaeological sites to enable,
in light of SRARP research problem domains, the evaluation of
cultural resources currently deemed potentially eligible for
nomination to the National Register of Historic Places.
- Refine the predictive models presented in the prehistoric and
historic syntheses through additional survey and site testing.
Integrated with SRARP/SCIAA research goals, this will enable
better decision making in site use planning.
- Emphasize, from both a management and research perspective, the
role of SRS archaeological sites as environmental resources and
as a research database, both of which are integral constituents
of the SRS as a National Environment Research Park.
- Enhance, as mandated by 36CRF79 and Native American Graves
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the curation facilities
maintained by the SRARP.SCIAA with adequate space for current
and future archaeological collections. The preservation in
perpetuity of the archaeological data base, whether in situ or
in research collections, is an integral aspect of cultural resource
- Enhance the curation facilities of the SRARP/SCIAA with adequate
storage space in order to facilitate better access to the research
collections by SRARP/SCIAA staff and colleagues.
- Provide guidance to SR in accordance with ARPA for the protection
and enhancement of the archaeological resources of the SRS.
Act of 1906 (Section 3) and subsequent cultural resource laws and
regulations state that the intent of Congress in the undertaking of
cultural resource protection and investigation is to benefit recognized
scientific or educational institutions, with a view to increasing public
knowledge (particularly the proposed new 36CFR800 Section 106, 110
regulations). Archaeological, historical and geoarchaeological research
must be conducted within the Savannah River Basin in order to adequately
investigate and properly manage cultural resources of the SRS for the
- Conduct archaeological, geoarchaeological and historical research
pertinent to the SRS and the Savannah River Valley. This will
enable the SRARP to:
The knowledge from (a)-(c) above will enable the DOE to better manage
the cultural resources of the SRS. This information provides a
context for future NERP studies.
- Test and refine the predictive models of prehistoric and
historic settlement variability, as presented in Sassaman
et al. (1990), Brooks (1988) and Brooks and Crass (1991)
- Use the predictive models to conduct regional-level comparisons
by physiographic province and crosscutting drainages.
- Use the results of (b) above to construct nomothetic-level
contributions of relevance to the broader discipline of
- Report on archaeological investigations using regional perspectives.
This will provide not only a great deal of new archaeological
knowledge, but a better understanding of structure and formation of
sites on the Savannah River Site for DOE management purposes. This
information provides a context for future NERP studies.
- Conduct geoarchaeological research on the SRS and integrate those
results with similar research in other portions of the Savannah
River Valley. The emphasis will be on prehistoric human adaptations
to changes in the late Pleistocene-Holocene landscape due to
climatic and environmental process. Because of the scale at which
cultural systems operate, the approach employed is necessarily
regional. From a management standpoint, this assumes particular
importance when assessing the significance of a given archaeological
site in that sites are typically evaluated in terms of there
"potential to provide new knowledge on the history or prehistory of
the region" (36CFR60.4). Similarly, in order to reliably interpret
the archaeological record from which management decisions are made,
geoarchaeological investigations are essential for differentiating
natural from cultural site formation processes. This information
provides a context for future NERP studies.
- Continue to coordinate with SRS personnel to integrate archaeological
site locational data into a Geographic Information System (GIS).
With GIS, multivariate site locational data can be generated to
make precise estimates of the probability of the occurrence of
particular site types, as well as to better manage the preservation
of known archaeological sites.
- Integration of GIS archaeological data layers with the curation
databases for cultural resource management. This information
provides a context for future NERP studies.
- Integration of Cold War-era facilities and processes into the
cultural resource management plan.
- Provide protection for the remnant cemeteries through Site Use
System responses in accordance with South Carolina Code 16-17-600
as amended Destruction of Graves and Burial Grounds.
The SRARP/SCIAA continues to enhance its outreach program in accordance
with ARPA [Section 10 (c)], 36CFR800 Section 106 regulations, the PMOA
(Section IV), the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Section 1),
as amended and the SC SHPO's new "Guidelines and Standards for
Archaeological Investigation". In order to accomplish this, contingent
upon funding, the SRARP/SCIAA will instruct, conduct and coordinate
public services to be rendered to the community in the name of
SRARP/SCIAA/USC and the DOE under the above mentioned laws and
The public awareness and educational responsibilities of the SRARP/SCIAA,
consistent with SEN-23-90, are:
Continue to develop and implement an educational outreach program
in the SRS area. This will be accomplished through public
presentations that explain the methods, goals, and results of the
SRARP/DOE joint effort to identify, understand, and preserve our
cultural heritage. This responsibility will be undertaken by a
dedicated individual, contingent upon funding, as per the new
CFR800 section 106 regulations.
Continue the hands-on approach of the volunteer program when
possible, with the goal of providing the general public with actual
archaeological work experience. This will increase not only the
public awareness of the goals and methods of archaeology, but also
awareness of the effort by DOE/SRARP to identify, understand and
preserve our cultural heritage.
Continue the Community History Project ion conjunction with the
outreach program in light of proposed new 36CFR800 Section 106
regulations. This long-term research project will draw on the
fields of historical archaeology, history (both oral and written),
cultural geography, and the natural sciences to reconstruct and
interpret the post-contact occupation of the SRS. This information
provides a context for future NERP studies.
Involve graduate and undergraduate students in hands-on training
program in archaeological research and cultural resource
The above responsibilities and goals from the basis of the working relationships
between the DOE and SRARP/SCIAA and are consistent with both the letter
and spirit of the law. But compliance related implementation, not
decisions, will be based on the adequate levels of funding. The
SRARP/SCIAA are uniquely qualified to undertake these goals and
responsibilities due to the long history of involvement on the SRS by
key staff members.
Finally, there has been a knowledge base increase during the past ten
years in cultural resources and cultural resource management. The
SRARP/SCIAA feels that, depending on funding, it is time to re-evaluate
and update the prehistoric (Sassaman et al. 1990) and historic syntheses
(Brooks and Crass 1991) and the Archaeological Resource Management Plan
(SRARP 1989). A major documentary goal and in consideration of
sufficient funding for its completion is:
Report on the current state of knowledge of the archaeology
of the SRS and implications for the managing the cultural
resources in an enlightened manner.
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